The tumor microenvironment is a complex ecology of cells that evolves with and provides support to tumor cells during the transition to malignancy.


Among the innate and adaptive immune cells recruited to the tumor site, macrophages are particularly abundant and are present at all stages of tumor progression. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) generally play a protumoral role. In the primary tumor, macrophages can stimulate angiogenesis and enhance tumor cell invasion, motility, and intravasation. What tumor types, or sub-types, are most closely associated with high TAMs?

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